Concrete consists of cement, water, sand, rock, and sand aggregates and admixtures. Admixtures are added during the mixing of the concrete to produce special properties. They can alter the setting, hardening, strength, and durability of the concrete
Chimney in architecture are shafts, within or next to buildings, intended to carry flue gases from fireplaces (including ovens and appliances) into the open air above the roof. Each of the following must be connected to its chimney: each fireplace with a nominal heat output of more than 20 kW (for gas fires and appliances, more than 30 kW); each fireplace in buildings of more than five full storeys; each open fireplace; each fireplace with a burner and blow
In Building Construction, a beam is a horizontal structural element that generally resists the load applied laterally to the beam by columns, walls and building elements. The beam runs horizontally along the main wall of the building at ceiling height and supports the structure.
Backfilling is the process of refilling or putting the soil back into a trench or hole created during excavation, especially around the foundations.
A bulkhead is a retaining wall, such as a bulkhead within a ship or a watershed retaining wall. It may also be used in mines to contain flooding. Coastal bulkheads are most often referred to as seawalls, bulkheads, or riprap revetments.