Types of Greek Order
Types of Roman Order
Introduction of Composite Order
The Composite and Tuscan Orders were introduced by the Romans, increasing the total number of architectural orders to five. Orders were widely utilized as aesthetic embellishments, but they were also used productively in temple colonnades. To achieve more height, the Romans put their orders on pedestals. These orders were frequently stacked and used in numerous combinations to decorate wall surfaces. The orders were employed for multi-story structures, with separate orders for each level, with the robust order on the bottom floor and the slender order on the second. This architectural system provided splendor to Rome’s stately structures. (Source: World Architecture by G.K Hiraskar, Page 252)
The Composite order is an order that comes from classical architecture and was developed by the Romans. This order is so-called because its capital is composed of the Ionic and Corinthian orders. This order was used in triumphal arches.
The Roman Composite Order
This Order is so called because its capital is composed of the Ionic and Corinthian Orders. This order was used in the Trimphal arches.
(i) Column:- It is 10 in diameter and similar to the Ionic or Corinthian Order in treatment. It has an attic base, i.e., it consists of a square block and upper and lower torus mouldings separated by scotia and fillets.
The circular shaft has 24 flutes separated by fillets.
The capital is a combination of the volutes of the Ionic capital and the acanthus leaves of the Corinthian capital. The capital has two rows, each of eight acanthus leaves. The upper part contains four volutes that support the corners of the abacus.
(ii) Entablature. The architrave, which is ¾ diameter high, is divided into two fascias separated by small mouldings.
The frieze, which is also ¾ in diameter, is richly ornamented with a continuous band of sculptures.
The cornice, which is one diameter high, is supported by dentils. The corona is enriched with mouldings.
The Composite Order is a fine blending of the Ionic and Corinthian Orders with an exceedingly rich and decorative treatment. (Source: World Architecture by G.K Hiraskar, Page 259- 261)
Proportioning of Roman Classic Orders
Vitruvius, the Augustan architect, gave the proportioning of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian Orders but not for the composite Order, which was not evolved until the 1st century A.D.
The proportions of five orders were studied in the Renaissance period by well-known architects like Palladio, Vignola, and Sir William Chambers. These architects worked out the system of measurements of the orders in terms of the lower diameter of the column. (Source: World Architecture by G.K Hiraskar, Page 253)
The following table shows the proportions of the Roman Orders.
|Name of Roman Order||Height of column in|
terms of lower Dia.
|Height of Entablature in|
Terms of lower Dia.
|Ionic||9||2 whole 1/4|
|Corinthian||10||2 whole 1/2|
|Composite||10||2 whole 1/2|
|Tuscan||7||2 whole 1/3|